Concept of Proportion

A statement of equality of two ratios is called proportion.

Four numbers, a, b, c, d, are said to be in proportion when the ratio of the first two, a and b, is equal to the ratio of the last two, c and d.

i.e. \frac{{\text{a}}}{{\text{b}}} = \frac{{\text{c}}}{{\text{d}}} or a : b = c : d

e.g. \frac{2}{3} = \frac{6}{9}     or         2 : 3 = 6 : 9

Some authors use the notation a : b :: c : d for proportion, but this notation is not preferred.

Here \frac{{\text{a}}}{{\text{b}}} = \frac{{\text{c}}}{{\text{d}}} or a : b = c : d

If four numbers are in proportion, then we can also derive some other proportions from them.

Let  \frac{{\text{a}}}{{\text{b}}} = \frac{{\text{c}}}{{\text{d}}} be the given proportion, then

(1) \frac{{{\text{a + b}}}}{{\text{b}}} = {\text{ }}\frac{{{\text{c + d}}}}{{\text{d}}}
(2) \frac{{{\text{a - b}}}}{{\text{b}}} = {\text{ }}\frac{{{\text{c - d}}}}{{\text{d}}}
(3) \frac{{{\text{a + b}}}}{{{\text{a- b}}}} = {\text{ }}\frac{{{\text{c +; d}}}}{{{\text{c - d}}}}
(4) \frac{{\text{a}}}{{\text{c}}} = \frac{{\text{b}}}{{\text{d}}}
(5) \frac{{\text{b}}}{{\text{a}}} = \frac{{\text{d}}}{{\text{c}}}

are called the Derived Proportions.

Here    \frac{{\text{a}}}{{\text{b}}} = \frac{{\text{c}}}{{\text{d}}}                   or         a : b = c : d, then

The numbers a and d are called extremes of proportion, and the numbers b and c are called means of proportion.

Hence Product of Extremes = Product of Means.

To solve the proportion, we use the above principal, A single term in the proportion is called a proportional.

a” is the 1st proportional.
b” is the 2nd proportional.
c” is the 3rd proportional.
d” is the 4th proportional.

Example:
Find the 3rd proportional in 2 : 3 = x: 15

Solution:
Let       2 : 3 = x: 15
i.e. \frac{2}{3} = \frac{x}{{15}}
 \Rightarrow      3 x x = 2 x 15                  (by the principle of proportion)
 \Rightarrow      3x = 30
 \Rightarrow      \frac{{3x}}{3} = \frac{{30}}{3}
 \Rightarrow      \boxed{x = 10}

Example:
Find the missing value in x: 8 = 9 : 12

Solution:
Let       x: 8 = 9 : 12
 \Rightarrow      \frac{x}{8} = \frac{9}{{12}}
 \Rightarrow      12x = 9 x 8                      (by the principle of proportion)

  \Rightarrow     12x = 72
 \Rightarrow     \frac{{12x}}{{12}} = \frac{{72}}{{12}}
 \Rightarrow     \boxed{x = 6}

Example:
Find the 2nd proportional in 4, 20, 30.

Solution:
Let x be the 2nd proportional
\therefore 4 :x =20 : 30
\frac{4}{x} = \frac{{20}}{{30}}
x x 20 = 4 x 30
x = \frac{{{\text{4 x 30}}}}{{20}} = 6