Mathematical Statement:
A meaningful composition of words which can be considered either true or false is called a mathematical statement or simply a Statement.
A single letter shall be used to denote a statement. For example, letter ‘p’ may be used to stand for the statement “ABC is an equilateral triangle.” Thus, p = ABC is an equilateral triangle.
Truth Value of a Statement:
A statement is said to have truth value T or Faccording as the statement considered is true or false. For example, the statement ‘2 plus 2 is four’ has truth value T, whereas, the statement ‘2 plus 2 is five’ has truth value F. The knowledge of truth value of statements enables to replace one statement by some other (equivalent) statement(s).
Production of New Statement:
New statements from given statements can be produced by
(i) Negation:
If p is a statement then its negation ‘p’ is statement ‘not p’. ‘p’ has truth value F or T according as the truth value of ‘p’ is T or F.
(ii) Implication:
If from a statement p another statement q follows, we say ‘p implies q’ and write ‘p q’. Such a result is called an implication. The truth value of ‘pq’ is F only when p has truth value T and q has the truth value F.
The statements involving ‘if p holds then q’ are of the kind pq. For example, .
(iii) Conjunction:
The sentence ‘p and q’ which may be denoted by ‘pq’ is the conjunction of p and q. Truth value of pq is T only when both p and q are true.
(iv) Disjunction:
The sentence ‘p and q (or both)’ which may be denoted by ‘pq’ is called the disjunction of the statements p and q. Truth value of pq is F only when both p and q are false.
Equivalence of Two Statements, pq:
Two statements p and q are said to be equivalent if one implies the other and in such a case using the double implication symbol,, we write pq.
The statements which involve the phrase ‘if and only if’ or ‘is equivalent to’ or “the necessary and sufficient conditions” are of the kind pq. For example, ABC is an equilateral triangle AB = BC = CA.
For brevity, the phrase ‘if and only if’ is shortened to “iff”. As described above, the symbols stand for the words ‘and’, ‘or’ respectively. Disjunction symbol is used in the logical sense ‘and/or’. The symbols, and are logical connectives and are frequently used.
Following is the table showing truth values of different compositions of statements. Such tables are called truth tables.
p |
q |
p |
q |
pq |
pq |
pq |
pq |
T |
T |
F |
F |
T |
T |
T |
T |
T |
F |
F |
T |
F |
F |
T |
F |
F |
T |
T |
F |
T |
F |
T |
F |
F |
F |
T |
T |
T |
F |
F |
T |
By forming truth tables equivalence of various statements can easily be ascertained. For example, we shall easily see that the implication ‘pq’ is equivalent to ‘pq’. The implication ‘qp’ is called contra positive of pq.