Presentation of Data

  • Classification of Data

    The process of arranging data into homogenous group or classes according to some common characteristics present in the data is called classification. For Example: The process of sorting letters in a post office, the letters are classified according to the cities and further arranged according to streets.   Bases of Classification: There are four important […]

  • Tabulation of Data

    The process of placing classified data into tabular form is known as tabulation. A table is a symmetric arrangement of statistical data in rows and columns. Rows are horizontal arrangements whereas columns are vertical arrangements. It may be simple, double or complex depending upon the type of classification. Types of Tabulation: (1) Simple Tabulation or […]

  • Construction of Statistical Table

    A statistical table has at least four major parts and some other minor parts. (1) The Title (2) The Box Head (column captions) (3) The Stub (row captions) (4) The Body (5) Prefatory Notes (6) Foots Notes (7) Source Notes The general sketch of table indicating its necessary parts is shown below: -----THE TITLE---- ----Prefatory […]

  • Difference Between Classification and Tabulation

    (1) First the data are classified and then they are presented in tables, the classification and tabulation in fact goes together. So classification is the basis for tabulation. (2) Tabulation is a mechanical function of classification because in tabulation classified data are placed in row and columns. (3) Classification is a process of statistical analysis […]

  • Frequency Distribution

    A frequency distribution is a tabular arrangement of data into classes according to the size or magnitude along with corresponding class frequencies (the number of values fall in each class). Ungrouped Data or raw Data: Data which have not been arranged in a systemic order is called ungrouped or raw data. Grouped Data: Data presented […]

  • Construction of Frequency Distribution

    Following steps are involved in the construction of a frequency distribution. (1) Find the range of the data: The range is the difference between the largest and the smallest values. (2) Decide the approximate number of classes: Which the data are to be grouped. There are no hard and first rules for number of classes. […]

  • Example Construction of Frequency Distribution

    Construct a frequency distribution with suitable class interval size of marks obtained by 50 students of a class are given below: 23, 50, 38, 42, 63, 75, 12, 33, 26, 39, 35, 47, 43, 52, 56, 59, 64, 77, 15, 21, 51, 54, 72, 68, 36, 65, 52, 60, 27, 34, 47, 48, 55, 58, […]

  • Frequency Distribution of Discrete Data

    Discrete data is generated by counting; each and every observation is exact. When an observation is repeated. It is counted the number for which the observation is repeated is called frequency of that observation. The class limits in discrete data are true class limit; there are no class boundaries in discrete data. Example: The following […]

  • Cumulative Frequency Distribution

    The total frequency of all classes less than the upper class boundary of a given class is called the cumulative frequency of that class. “A table showing the cumulative frequencies is called a cumulative frequency distribution”. There are two types of cumulative frequency distributions. Less than cumulative frequency distribution: It is obtained by adding successively […]

  • Diagrams and Graphs of Statistical Data

    We have discussed the techniques of classification and tabulation that help us in organizing the collected data in a meaningful fashion. However, this way of presentation of statistical data does not always prove to be interesting to a layman. Too many figures are often confusing and fail to convey the massage effectively. One of the […]

  • Simple Bar Chart

    A simple bar chart is used to represents data involving only one variable classified on spatial, quantitative or temporal basis. In simple bar chart, we make bars of equal width but variable length, i.e. the magnitude of a quantity is represented by the height or length of the bars. Following steps are undertaken in drawing […]

  • Multiple Bar Chart

    By multiple bars diagram two or more sets of inter-related data are represented (multiple bar diagram facilities comparison between more than one phenomena). The technique of simple bar chart is used to draw this diagram but the difference is that we use different shades, colors, or dots to distinguish between different phenomena. We use to […]