Introduction to Statistics

• History of Statistics

The Word statistics have been derived from Latin word “Status” or the Italian word “Statista”, meaning of these words is “Political State” or a Government. Shakespeare used a word Statist is his drama Hamlet (1602). In the past, the statistics was used by rulers. The application of statistics was very limited but rulers and kings […]

• Meanings of Statistics

The word statistics has three different meanings (sense) which are discussed below: (1) Plural Sense (2) Singular Sense (3) Plural of the word “Statistic” (1) Plural Sense: In plural sense, the word statistics refer to numerical facts and figures collected in a systematic manner with a definite purpose in any field of study. In this […]

• Definition of Statistics

Statistics like many other sciences is a developing discipline. It is not nothing static. It has gradually developed during last few centuries. In different times, it has been defined in different manners. Some definitions of the past look very strange today but those definitions had their place in their own time. Defining a subject has […]

• Kinds or Branches Statistics

Statistics may be divided into two main branches: (1) Descriptive Statistics (2) Inferential Statistics (1) Descriptive Statistics: In descriptive statistics, it deals with collection of data, its presentation in various forms, such as tables, graphs and diagrams and findings averages and other measures which would describe the data. For Example: Industrial statistics, population statistics, trade […]

• Characteristics of Statistics

Some of its important characteristics are given below: • Statistics are aggregates of facts. • Statistics are numerically expressed. • Statistics are affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes. • Statistics are enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standard of accuracy. • Statistics are collected for a predetermine purpose. • Statistics are […]

• Limitations of Statistics

The important limitations of statistics are: (1) Statistics laws are true on average. Statistics are aggregates of facts. So single observation is not a statistics, it deals with groups and aggregates only. (2) Statistical methods are best applicable on quantitative data. (3) Statistical cannot be applied to heterogeneous data. (4) It sufficient care is not […]

• Functions or Uses of Statistics

(1) Statistics helps in providing a better understanding and exact description of a phenomenon of nature. (2) Statistical helps in proper and efficient planning of a statistical inquiry in any field of study. (3) Statistical helps in collecting an appropriate quantitative data. (4) Statistics helps in presenting complex data in a suitable tabular, diagrammatic and […]

• Importance of Statistics in Different Fields

Statistics plays a vital role in every fields of human activity. Statistics has important role in determining the existing position of per capita income, unemployment, population growth rate, housing, schooling medical facilities etc…in a country. Now statistics holds a central position in almost every field like Industry, Commerce, Trade, Physics, Chemistry, Economics, Mathematics, Biology, Botany, […]

• Some Basic Definitions in Statistics

Constant: A quantity which can be assuming only one value is called a constant. It is usually denoted by the first letters of alphabets . For Example: Value of and value of . Variable: A quantity which can vary from one individual or object to and other is called a variable. It is usually denoted […]

• Collection of Statistical Data

Statistical Data: A sequence of observation, made on a set of objects included in the sample drawn from population is known as statistical data. (1) Ungrouped Data: Data which have been arranged in a systematic order are called raw data or ungrouped data. (2) Grouped Data: Data presented in the form of frequency distribution is […]