# Association

• ### Independence of Attributes

Let us consider certain examples before we discuss the independence in a formal manner. Example: Consider the following sample data on the liking of males and females for fish. Gender   Males Females Total Like Fish Do not like Fish Total Discussion: There are 100 males out of which 80 like fish and out of […]

• ### Consistency

If the class frequencies are observed in a certain sample data and all class frequencies are recorded correctly then there will be no error in them and they will be called consistent. But sometimes the class frequencies are not recorded correctly and their column total and row total do not agree with the grand total. […]

• ### Positive and Negative Classes

The classes are called positive classes because they contain all positive attributes; the classes are called negative classes because they have negative attributes. The classes and contain both positive and negative attributes, they are called mixed or contrary classes. If we have three attributes with their opponents or complements as and , then we can […]

• ### Two Attributes

The tall and short persons may further be divided into intelligent and non- intelligent persons. Intelligence may be denoted by and may be used for non intelligence. The following table shows different attributes and their combinations. When two attributes are involved, the division of the sample as below is called two- way classification. Two-Way Classification […]

• ### One Attribute

Suppose that there are 100 individuals in a certain sample, the sample size is denoted by . These 100 individuals are divided into two mutually exclusive groups on the basis of the attribute of height. Out of 100, 60 are tall and 40 are short. If ‘tall’ are denoted by and short are denoted by […]

• ### Variable and Attribute

There are 4 persons and their heights in inches are 55, 56, 72 and 74. Here height is a characteristic and the figures 55, 56, 72 and 74 are the values of a variable. These figures are the result of measurements. You know that the measurements generate the continuous variable. Thus the variable on heights […]