Infinite Geometric Series

A geometric sequence in which the number of terms increases without bound is called an infinite geometric series.
If the absolute value of the common ratio r is less than 1, {S_n}, the sum of n terms, always approaches a definite limit as n increases without bound. As we have proved that the sum of a finite geometric series is

{S_n} = \frac{{{a_1} - {a_1}{r^n}}}{{1 -  r}},{\text{ }}r \ne 1

We rewrite it as

{S_n} = \frac{{{a_1}}}{{1 - r}} -  \frac{{{a_1}{r^n}}}{{1 - r}}

If now r is numerically less than 1, i.e., \left| r \right| < 1, the numerical value of {r^n} decreases as n increases and by taking n sufficiently large, we can make {r^n} as small as we want. Hence, by taking n large enough, we can make {S_n} differ from \frac{{{a_1}}}{{1 - r}} by as little as we want, i.e., we can make {S_n} approach \frac{{{a_1}}}{{1 - r}} as a limit. Symbolically

{S_\infty } = \mathop {\lim }\limits_{n \to \infty  } {S_n} = \frac{{{a_1}}}{{1 - r}}

Where {S_\infty } is the sum of an infinite geometric progression with first term as {a_1} and common ratio r. We can also call it as Infinite Series. According, the expression {a_1} + {a_1}r + {a_1}{r^2} + \cdots is called an infinite geometric series. If the terms continuous decease as {S_\infty } approaches a limiting value as n becomes infinitely large, it is said to be a Convergent Infinite Series.


Find the sum of the infinite geometric sequence
                        2,{\text{ }}\frac{4}{3},{\text{ }}\frac{8}{9},{\text{  }}\frac{{16}}{{27}}, \cdots
                                    We have
                        {a_1} = 2, r = \frac{2}{3} < 1, then
                        {S_\infty } = \frac{{{a_1}}}{{1 - r}} = \frac{2}{{1 - \frac{2}{3}}} =  6

Recurring or Periodic Decimals:

An interesting application of a geometric progression with infinitely many terms in evaluation of recurring or periodic decimals.

When we attempt to express a common fraction such as \frac{3}{8} or \frac{4}{{11}} as a decimal fraction, the decimal always either terminates or ultimately repeats in blocks. Thus
                                    \frac{3}{8} = 0.375               (Decimal Terminates)
                                    \frac{4}{{11}} =  0.363636...   (Decimal Repeats)
In the division process by which we express the fraction \frac{p}{q} as a decimal fraction the reminders can only be the numbers 0,1,2,3,4, \ldots ,q - 1. If at any stage in the division we obtain a remainder 0, the process terminates. Otherwise, after not more than q divisors, one of the remainders 0,1,2,3,4, \ldots ,q - 1 must recur and the decimal begins to repeat.


Express the recurring decimal fraction 0.5378378378... as a common fraction.


Given decimal fraction can be written in the form
                        0.5378378... = 0.5 + 0.0378 + 0.0000378 + \cdots
Hence our number consists of the decimal 0.5plus the sum of an infinite geometric progression with first term {a_1} = 0.0378 and common ratio r = 0.001. The sum of the infinite progression is expressible as the fraction
                        {S_\infty } = \frac{{0.0378}}{{1 - 0.001}} = \frac{{0.0378}}{{0.999}}  = \frac{{378}}{{9990}} = \frac{7}{{185}}
            Hence        0.5378378... = 0.5 + \frac{7}{{185}} = \frac{{199}}{{370}}